TH 3000 Christianity II: Essay Questions-1st Exam
1. Explain in chronological fashion the rise of the Papacy's power. What were the three means that the Popes utilized against those who disagreed with them? What four groups were the recipients of such actions?
2. Why was the "vision of a universal papal monarchy" no longer tenable after the late fourteenth century? Discuss the "governance" of the Roman Catholic Church at this period, the various steps taken, and the Councils involved to solve the crisis. What was the final outcome?
3. What impact did the Renaissance have upon European means of thinking and how did these effect Western Christianity? Give concrete examples. In particular, discuss Humanism, Nominalism, and Devotio Moderna.
4. Present a psychological profile of Martin Luther and how this impacted his feelings concerning a) faith, b)Purgatory and indulgences, c) Scripture, and d) the church. Compare several of Luther's thoughts to those of John Calvin.
5. What was the Counter-Reformation's effect in Europe and upon the New World? Discuss the Counter-Reformation's attitudes towards Protestantism, in particular at the Council of Trent.
6. Discuss the historical background to and impact of the Peace of Westphalia upon Christianity in Europe and subsequently in North America. Report upon the development of Christianity in colonial North America. What is the difference between religious toleration and religious liberty?